BEST/NEAREST BALL RULE or ORDER OF PLAY
The other factor while playing bocce or petanque that has to do with this closest to the target ball, is the order of play.
Teams only alternate shots if each subsequent shot has that ball closest to the target ball.
In other words, the "nearest ball", rule governs the sequence of thrown balls. The side whose bocce/petanque ball is the closest to the jack/pallina/cochonnet (target ball) is called the "in" ball and the opposing side the "out" ball.
Whenever a team gets "in" it steps aside and allows the "out" team to play.
The opposing team will then deliver their bocce/petanque balls until the point is
taken or they have exhausted their teams balls, in the attempt. If the "in" team still has balls they must be played and they can attempt to get additional points.